Wounded Men, Placard-type signs
Megaloceros frieze 23,000 BC
Other decorated caves in the Lot, include Pech Merle Cave (Cabrerets), Roucadour Cave (Thémines), Pergouset (Saint-Géry), Cantal Cave (Le Verdié), and the Cave of Sainte-Eulalie (Espagnac-Sainte-Eulalie).
In 1954, Cougnac Cave was listed as a Historic Monument of France.
There are in fact two separate Cougnac caves, approximately 200 metres apart.
The first cave, which we do not deal with, has a large number of stalagmites and stalactites, as well as other concretions like soda straws.
The second is a decorated paleolithic cave.
They are located close to the village of Lavaysse, near Gourdon, in the Lot département of the Midi-Pyrénées region.
The decorated cave was discovered in 1952, by Jean Mazet, Lucien Gouloumes, René Borne, Roger, Maurice Boudet and Alphonse Sauvant.
In 1953, an examination of the cave's Stone Age art was conducted by archaeologists Meroc and Mazet.
Subsequent excavations were conducted by Michel Lorblanchet, who documented the imagery and performed numerous tests, including pigment analysis and also radiocarbon dating on samples of pigment used for certain drawings.
In a side passage off the main gallery, in a deep part of the cave, there are six bird-like signs (aviforms), painted in black.
The same strange motifs are found in paleolithic caves across France, such as Le Placard, in the Charente, Pech Merle in the Lot, Cosquer Cave near Marseilles and Chauvet Pont d'Arc in the Ardèche.
Le Placard has twelve of these signs; Pech Merle has three, Cosquer has one (but originally might have had more), while Cougnac has eleven.
Why do these four caves - separated by 600 kms - share the same strange Placard-type signs? It must be that the occupiers of these caves were in contact with each other - possibly for trade or cultural reasons - but there is no clear answer.
See also: What is the Meaning of Cave Art?
Placard-type signs are prehistoric pictographs which appeared before 17,500 BC. They were described by prehistorian Jean Clottes as consisting of four typical components: a vertical rectangle, a horizontal band, and two underlying appendages.
The main gallery leads into the main chamber, where most of Cougnac's rock art is located.
In the main chamber, the most impressive piece of prehistoric art is a frieze of red ochre figures, along the left-hand wall.
This features three giant deer or megaloceros (now extinct), mammoths (also extinct), several ibex, and what is believed to be a tahr - a large sure-footed wild goat, now limited to Asia.
One ibex is very carefully positioned, so that the shape of the flowstone on the wall creates the illusion of long hair hanging from its belly.
In addition, two large stalagmites in front of the ibex, were coloured with red pigment, thus serving as a frame through which to observe the animal.
In total, Cougnac contains more than 60 animal paintings, and features most of the standard mid-Gravettian animal repertoire, except horses, which were more common during the early Gravettian.
In addition, the Megaloceros Frieze contains two charcoal drawings of wounded men. Both are painted in black, inside larger animal figures, and only the torso and legs are shown.
One has three spears sticking out of him; the other has seven.
The wounded man theme is exceedingly rare in paleolithic art, but examples can be seen at Pech-Merle and Lascaux, as well as Cougnac.
In addition to the aviforms mentioned above, the cave also contains a range of other abstract signs, including:
These mysterious cave symbols were clearly of some importance in Stone Age culture, but there is still no consensus among archaeologists as to their purpose.
There are more than 50 hand stencils at Cougnac.
For details of the type of paints used by cave artists at Cougnac and elsewhere, see Stone Age Colour Palette.
In the early 1990s a series of radiocarbon dating tests were performed on samples from Cougnac Cave.
These radiocarbon dates, along with other archaeological evidence, revealed the following:
See the World's Oldest Art (from 540,000 BC).
Cougnac belongs to the region of Franco-Cantabrian art, which includes southwestern France, the Pyrenees, and the northern coast of Spain.
This region served as a sanctuary for northern Europeans fleeing icy temperatures during the Last Glacial Maximum, around 20,000 BC.
The influx of people is believed to have been a trigger for the upsurge in cave art in the region, during the Magdalenian period.
(1) "Payrignac, grotte de Cougnac, datations de pigments pariétaux au radiocarbone." (Payrignac, Cougnac cave, radiocarbon dating of parietal pigments) Lorblanchet M. 1993: Bilan scientifique 1992 (SRA DRAC Midi-Pyrénées), p. 99.
(2) "Étude des pigments de grottes ornées paléolithiques du Quercy." (Study of pigments from Palaeolithic decorated caves in Quercy) Lorblanchet M. et al. 1990: Bull. de la Soc. des Études du Lot 2, p. 93.
(3) "Les peintures de la grotte de Cougnac (Lot)." (Paintings in Cougnac Cave) Méroc et Mazet, 1953. L'Anthropologie, p. 490.